Brown v. Board of Education

Timeline of Desegregation and
Civil Rights

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c. 1500
Spain imports enslaved Africans to the New World to replace
enslaved American indians who escaped or died from European diseases.
Twenty Africans are sold into servitude in Jamestown, VA . With institutionalized
slavery comes branding of the enslaved.
Congress passes the Fugitive Slave Act, making it a crime to harbor
African Americans who have escaped enslavement.
Nat Turner and 60 followers kill 55 whites in Virginia--the most serious
uprising by enslaved African Americans in U.S. history. Turner and 16
followrers are hanged.
Sojourner Truth (born Isabella Bomefree; freed from slavery in
New York, 1827) becomes an itinerant antislavery orator and singer.
Fredericak Douglass ' publication of the North Star, an
antislavery newspaper, signals his break with the more radical
white abolitionist William Lloyd Arrison.
Supreme Court's Roberts v. The City of Boston decision upholding
segregated schools provides precedent for Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court's Dred Scott v. Sandford decision upholds slavery in the territories.
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney writes that an enslaved person is property and that
only whites are U.S. citizens.
President Abraham Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation .
Mobs in the New York City Draft Riots kill dozens of African Americans.
1865 - 1869
Congress passes 13th, 14th, 15th amendments to the Constitution , outlawing
slavery, ensuring equal protection of the laws, and banning state
restrictions on voting based on race.
Civil Rights Act promises to citizens of every race...regardless
of any previous condition of servitude
equal access to public accomodations.
It is nullified by the Supreme Court in 1883.
Booker T. Washington founds Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute
in Alabama.
Supreme Court's Plessy v. Ferguson decision establishes the
separate but equal doctrine
In The Souls of Black Folk , W.E.B. DuBois breaks with Booker T. Washington
over the latter's emphasis on graduation and vocational education.
DuBois wants the college educated Talented Tenth to lead the masses of the
Negro people
to political and social equality.
DuBois' Niagara Movement joins with whites outraged by the Springfield Riot of 1908
to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Its strategy relies on legal action, protest, and education.
Charles H. Houston is named Chief Counsel to NAACP. He develops a legal
strategy for achieving equality in education.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) sponsors nonviolent sit-ins at northern
segregated public facilities.
President Harry Truman ends segregation in the U.S. Military (Executive Order 9981)
[image of Executive Order 9981]
On May 17 the U.S. Supreme Court rules in Brown v. Board of Education
that segregation is unconstitutional.
Rosa Parks , seamstress and secretary of the Montgomery, AL chapter of the NAACP,
refuses to giver her bus seat to a white passenger. Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.,
helps organize a successful year-long bus boycott in Alabama.

See also:
* Rosa Parks: A 50th Anniversary
Four African American students from North Carolina Agricultural and
Technical College launch the southern sit-in movement at a segregated
Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, NC.
CORE organizes Freedom Rides , in which student volunteers take bus trips
to test new laws desegregating bus terminals. They are met with brutal resistance
in Alabama.

See also:
* FreedomRides: Recollections by David Fankhauser
* Civil Rights Movement, 1955-65: Freedom Rides
President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawing racial discrimination
in employment, voting, and the use of public facilities.
The nation is appalled by images of police and state troopers beating and
kicking participants in the Selma-to-Montgomery voting rights march [ Photos of march ].
Soon after, Congress passes the Voting Rights Act , which nullifies state and local laws
hindering voting by African Americans.
Timeline source: Brown v. Board of Education.
Washington, D.C.: National Park Service,
U.S. Department of the Interior, 2003. (pamphlet)
call number: I 29.6/6: B 81

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